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particles dispersed in a liquid


Dispersing agents promote the even and stable suspension of relatively small particles in a given medium. The optimum dispersant(s) required for a particular molecule depends on its size and charge distribution. Croda offers a range of chemistries and technologies that are compatible with a wide variety of formulation systems. Our dispersion technologies are successfully used in a range of applications and with our knowledge can help find the right dispersant for your formulations.

green dye dispersing in liquid

The dispersion process


Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface. The wetting of particles is essential for them to be finely dispersed in a liquid. Any air entrapped in the powder must be fully removed and the particle completely surrounded by the liquid medium that the particle is to be dispersed in, this stage is often referred to as milling. For the liquid to wet a solid, the surface tension of the liquid must be lower than that of the solid. A liquid with lower surface tension wets pigments better than one with a higher surface tension. It is important that the wetting/dispersing additive is compatible with the solvent(s) used in the continuous phase.


dispersion process

Dispersion stability

Stability is key to maintaining a fully dispersed solution. There are several ways in which this can be achieved:

  • Colloidal stability - prevent coagulation through inter-particle repulsion;
  • Kinetic stability - slow down sedimentation by increasing velocity of continuous phase; and
  • Thermodynamic stability - make it solid by creating a network structure.

Colloidal stability

To maintain stability through Brownian motion, we must prevent particles sticking together when they collide. This can be achieved by increasing the charge associated with the particle (ie zeta potential). Zeta potential is a physical property which is exhibited by any particle in a suspension and it can be used to optimise the formulations of suspensions and emulsions. Chemists are able to produce better and more stable formulations by understanding the zeta potential of their system.

Kinetic stability

For occasions when gravitational forces dominate over the Brownian forces we must look to another approach to improve stability. This can be achieved by:

  • Increasing low shear viscosity;
  • Gelling particles into a solid matrix;
  • Decreasing particle size; and
  • Matching density of dispersed and continuous phases.

Thermodynamic stability

For a particle to stay suspended in a gelled system, the yield stress of the gel must excveed the gravitational force acting on the particle. A material with a yield stress will stretch out like an elastic material, until the yield point and then begin to flow.


Emulsion and dispersion technology

Emulsification and dispersion technology front cover
1.2 MB
oil in water

Polymeric surfactants and dispersants

For specialist and demanding emulsion and dispersion applications, customers should consider our range of polymeric surfactants and dispersants. These proprietary polymers provide an extra degree of flexibility in formulating. They work to stabilise the emulsion, preventing the coalescence of emulsified oil or water droplets under more extreme conditions. Some specific benefits of the range are:

  • versatility;
  • electrolyte stability;
  • thermal stability;
  • shear stability; and
  • high performance at low treat rates.

Our recommendations

For specific demanding emulsion applications, customers should consider our range of polymeric surfactants. These proprietary non-ionic polymers provide an extra degree of working flexibility in formulating, to stabilise the emulsion systems by preventing coalescence of emulsified oil or water droplets under more extreme conditions.

High Performance Chemical Additives

Hypermer 1599

Hypermer 1599 is an oil soluble A-B-A type polymeric ester. Suitable for use in range of applications this product can improve emulsion and dispersion stability under more demanding conditions.

High Performance Chemical Additives

Hypermer B261

Hypermer B261 is an oil soluble polymeric emulsifier and dispersant suitable for use in a wide number of industrial applications.

High Performance Chemical Additives

Hypermer™ LP1

Hypermer LP1 is a polymeric emulsifier designed for the wetting, dispersion and fluidisation of solid particles in low polarity non-aqueous systems.

High Performance Chemical Additives

Zephrym™ 3300B

Zephrym 3300B is a non VOC polymeric dispersant for organic and inorganic particles Suitable for particle dispersion in aqueous and both low and high polarity non-aqueous systems Zephrym 3300B.....

High Performance Chemical Additives

Zephrym PD3315

Zephrym PD3315 is an anionic polymeric dispersant for organic inorganic and carbon particles in aqueous systems and high polarity non-aqueous systems Zephrym PD3315 finds use in a range of.....

High Performance Chemical Additives

Zephrym PD4913

Zephrym PD4913 is a polymeric dispersant for organic and inorganic particles in aqueous systems Zephrym PD4913 is non-ionic and produces high quality dispersions using untreated pigments and.....

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